The prolonging war with the Soviet Union, failures on the Eastern Front, the increasing problems with food and air-raids on German cities since the summer of 1942 caused accumulating pessimistic moods among the civilian population. After the Staliningrad defeat this situation transformed into more or less active resistance which began to spread among wider and wider circles of society.

Senior officers had most opportunity to fight with the regime. Under certain circumstances they could use the armed forces in order to make the transformation in the country. The military opposition group became more active when the members established contacts with Leipzig Carl Friedrich Goerdeler and General Ludwick Beck who became the leading opposition representatives in both civilian and military circles of society. However, disputes about the place, time and manner of the coup's implementation had to be stopped because of the tragic situation on the frontline.

On 4 June 1944 Rome was independent again, two days later English and U.S. troops landed in Normandy . At the beginning of July great areas of the USSR had been liberated and the Red Army entered Poland. A new person appeared on the political stage: Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg. He took on the risk of the attack on Hitler and guiding the transformation in the country. Preparations for take-over based on the plan under the cryptonym "Valkyrie", which was provided in case of a possible prisoners’ and forced laborers’ rebellion in Germany, were made. Approved by Hitler, the plan was to serve as legal basis for the beginning of the intended military coup. With the help of the army (ready to stifle a possible rebellion), under Colonel Stauffenberg they planned to take over district government , the ministry of propaganda, all the important facility missions, the radio, press and to arrest officers.